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How depression and antidepressant drugs work

Mutations in the GABA-A receptor cause a temporary imbalance between  GABA signaling (yellow) and glutamate signaling (blue) in the brain.  Homeostatic down regulation of glutamate signaling rebalances the system  at a lower level and can lead to depression. Treatment with ketamine  restores both GABA and glutamate levels to normal. Credit: Penn StateNew research demonstrates the effectiveness of ketamine to treat depression in a mouse model of the disease...

Ketamine lifts depression via a byproduct of its metabolism

Credit: NIH - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences A chemical byproduct, or metabolite, created as the body breaks down ketamine likely holds the secret...