A rat touches a touch stimulus that has appeared in an iPad screen. The visual stimulus has been created by a cognitive brain pattern generated by the rat.
Credit: Neuroscience Division (UPO) and Neuro-Com (UAB)
Brain-machine interfaces represent a solution for people with physical difficulties to communicate with their physical and social environment. In this work, researchers have identified a functional brain pattern in the prefrontal cortex, associated with cognitive processes, and have used it to activate a screen on a touch device (an iPad touchscreen).
The use of the neural cortical activity for operant conditioning tasks has existed for decades. In this case, however, a device patented by researchers has been used. This device allows the activation of any environmental instrument through specific electrical brain signals selected at will. In this research, authors worked with electrical brain signals that allowed the activation of the presentation of visual stimuli in the iPad’s touchscreen. At the same time, experimental animals had to touch those stimuli presented on the iPad to obtain a reward and, thus, properly complete the task.
One of the most interesting results of this research is that rats learned to increase the frequency of the selected neural pattern throughout successive experimental sessions, with the aim of obtaining the reward. Authors also prove that the selected pattern is connected to cognitive processes and not to motor or behavioral activity, which represents an important progress in the design of brain-machine interfaces. Another result of interest is that the selected brain pattern did not modify its functional properties after being used to activate the associative learning. Therefore, the prefrontal cortex (a brain area particularly connected to mental processes and states) has the ability to produce an oscillatory pattern that rats can generate to control their environment.
From the point of view of the research, it is beneficial to use the conclusions of this work to advance in the area of brain-machine interactions.
Story Source: Materials provided by Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. Original written by Frank Otto. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Samuel Hernández-González, Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García. A cognition-related neural oscillation pattern, generated in the prelimbic cortex, can control operant learning in rats.The Journal of Neuroscience, 2017; 3651-16 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3651-16.2017