New research from an international team of atmospheric scientists investigates for the first time the possibility of using a “cocktail” of geoengineering tools to reduce changes in both temperature and precipitation caused by atmospheric greenhouse gases. Credit: Illustration courtesy of Ken Caldeira. Earth image courtesy of NASA Geoengineering is a catch-all term that refers to

An outburst of methane produced effects similar to those predicted by current models of global climate change: a sudden, extreme rise in temperatures, combined with acidification of the oceans. In the case of the end-Permian extinction, virtually all shell-forming marine organisms were wiped out — consistent with the observation that such shells cannot form in

Artist’s rendering of the landscape during end-Permian extinction. Credit: José-Luis Olivares/MIT The largest mass extinction in the history of animal life occurred some 252 million years ago, wiping out more than 96 percent of marine species and 70 percent of life on land — including the largest insects known to have inhabited Earth. Multiple theories

This shows secondary electron image of pits left by ion microprobe analyses of a heterogeneous apatite grain in Apollo sample 14321, 1047. Water has now been detected in apatite in many different lunar rock types. Credit: Katharine L. Robinson, University of Hawaii, HIGP A recent review of hundreds of chemical analyses of Moon rocks indicates

In this artist’s rendering, flows of electrically charged ions and electrons accelerate along Jupiter’s magnetic field lines (fountain-like blue curves), triggering auroras (blue rings) at the planet’s pole. Accelerated particles come from clouds of material (red) spewed from volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon Io (small orb to right). Recent observations of extreme ultraviolet emissions from Jupiter

Mosaic of the Valles Marineris hemisphere of Mars projected into point perspective, a view similar to that which one would see from a spacecraft. Credit: NASA The origin and nature of Mars is mysterious. It has geologically distinct hemispheres, with smooth lowlands in the north and cratered, high-elevation terrain in the south. The red planet

Plots of AMPERE magnetic perturbations and radial current density from the northern hemisphere for 24 February 2014 with start times from 1530 UT through 1700 UT. Credit: Image courtesy of Wiley When the supersonic solar wind hits Earth’s magnetic field, a powerful electrical connection occurs with Earth’s field, generating millions of amperes of current that

Planet Earth. The tardigrade, also known as the water bear, is the toughest, most resilient, form of life on Earth. Credit: © timothyh / Fotolia The world’s most indestructible species, the tardigrade, an eight-legged micro-animal, also known as the water bear, will survive until the Sun dies, according to a new Oxford University collaboration. The

Before the low oxygen period, bivalves were larger and more numerous. Credit: The University of Texas at Austin/Rowan Martindale Using a combination of fossils and chemical markers, scientists have tracked how a period of globally low ocean-oxygen turned an Early Jurassic marine ecosystem into a stressed community inhabited by only a few species. The research

Scientists ask how it’s possible that certain coral reefs are thriving in this location. Credit: Amy Baco-Taylor Scientists have long believed that the waters of the Central and Northeast Pacific Ocean were inhospitable to deep-sea scleractinian coral, but a Florida State University professor’s discovery of an odd chain of reefs suggests there are mysteries about

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