This visualization is the first global tomographic model constructed based on adjoint tomography, an iterative full-waveform inversion technique. The model is a result of data from 253 earthquakes and 15 conjugate gradient iterations with transverse isotropy confined to the upper mantle. Credit: David Pugmire, ORNL Because of Earth’s layered composition, scientists have often compared the

On the left is an image of the global circulation pattern on a normal day. On the right is the image of the global circulation pattern when extreme weather occurs. The pattern on the right shows extreme patterns of wind speeds going north and south, while the normal pattern on the left shows moderate speed

Solar panels. Credit: © Ezume Images / Fotolia On the eve of this year’s Earth hour (25 March), researchers propose a solution in the journal Science (24 March) for the global economy to rapidly reduce carbon emissions. The authors argue a carbon roadmap, driven by a simple rule of thumb or “carbon law” of halving

Arctic sea ice hit a record low wintertime maximum extent in 2017. At 5.57 million square miles, it is the lowest maximum extent in the satellite record, and 455,600 square miles below the 1981 to 2010 average maximum extent. Credit: NASA Goddard’s Scientific Visualization Studio/L. Perkins Arctic sea ice appears to have reached on March

Amazon river mouth. Credit: ESA Researchers from the University of Amsterdam (UvA) and the University of Brasilia (Brazil) have determined the age of the formation of the Amazon River at 9.4 to 9 million years ago (Ma) with data that convincingly refutes substantial younger estimates. Their results are published as early view in the journal

William Foster in the field pointing to the late Permian mass extinction horizon. Credit: Richard Twitchett; CCAL Biotic crises during the Triassic period may have delayed marine recovery after a mass extinction during the late Permian, according to a study published March 15, 2017 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by William Foster from University

Dunes of the Sahara Desert. Image Credit: Flickr/Patrick Wuske New research investigating the transition of the Sahara from a lush, green landscape 10,000 years ago to the arid conditions found today, suggests that humans may have played an active role in its desertification. The desertification of the Sahara has long been a target for scientists

During the day, the Chaoborus spp hide in the sediment where dissolved methane is transferred into their gas sacs. Using the buoyancy from the methane, they float to the lake surface at night to feed on zooplankton. At the surface, the methane in the gas sacs is dissolved back into the water. Credit: ©UNIGE Chaoborus

A new research paper describes a period more than 2.4 billion years ago, when Earth’s atmosphere was filled with a thick, methane-rich haze much like Saturn’s moon Titan, seen here in an image taken by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft in 2013. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute More than 2.4 billion years ago, Earth’s atmosphere was inhospitable, filled

Permian-Triassic boundary in shallow marine sediments, characterised by a significant sedimentation gap between the black shales of Permian and dolomites of Triassic age. This gap documents a globally-recognised regression phase, probably linked to a period of a cold climate and glaciation.Credit: © H. Bucher, Zürich The Earth has known several mass extinctions over the course

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