El Sidron upper jaw: a dental calculus deposit is visible on the rear molar (right) of this Neandertal. This individual was eating poplar, a source of aspirin, and had also consumed moulded vegetation including Penicillium fungus, source of a natural antibiotic.Credit: Paleoanthropology Group MNCN-CSIC Ancient DNA found in the dental plaque of Neandertals — our

Haematite tubes from the NSB hydrothermal vent deposits that represent the oldest microfossils and evidence for life on Earth. Credit: Matthew Dodd Remains of microorganisms at least 3,770 million years old have been discovered by an international team led by UCL scientists, providing direct evidence of one of the oldest life forms on Earth. Tiny

The jade once belonging to an ancient Maya king is inscribed with 30 hieroglyphs. It was used during important religious ceremonies. Credit: Courtesy G. Braswell/UC San Diego To say that UC San Diego archaeologist Geoffrey Braswell was surprised to discover a precious jewel in Nim Li Punit in southern Belize is something of an understatement.

The foot bones of the new giant penguin (left), compared to those of an Emperor Penguin, the largest living penguin species (right). Credit: © Senckenberg Together with colleagues from New Zealand, Senckenberg scientist Dr. Gerald Mayr described a recently discovered fossil of a giant penguin with a body length of around 150 centimeters. The new

Exterior of Devil’s Gate: the cave in the Primorye region, about 30km from the far eastern coast of Russia, where the human remains were found from which the ancient DNA used in the study was extracted.Credit: Yuriy Chernyavskiy In contrast to Western Europeans, new research finds contemporary East Asians are genetically much closer to the

A fossilized mantle of a vampyropod, a relative to the modern vampire squid (pictured on bottom right). The ink sack is the raised structure in the center, and muscles have a striated appearance.Credit: Rowan Martindale/The University of Texas at Austin Jackson School of Geosciences and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. A trove of exceptionally

Artist’s reconstruction of Saccorhytus coronarius, based on the original fossil finds. The actual creature was probably no more than a millimeter in size. Credit: S Conway Morris / Jian Han Researchers have identified traces of what they believe is the earliest known prehistoric ancestor of humans—a microscopic, bag-like sea creature, which lived about 540 million

Siamogale melilutra had a large, powerful jaw with the enlarged, bunodont (rounded-cusped) teeth typical of many otter lineages. This raises the question of whether these bunodont teeth were inherited by all otters from a common ancestor, or evolved independently in different otter lineages over time because of the evolution of similar adaptations to thrive in

Trilobite species: An illustration of a trilobite (a different species than the recent find). Credit: University of Adelaide Fossils found in Morocco from the long-extinct group of sea creatures called trilobites, including rarely seen soft-body parts, may be previously unseen animals that left distinctive fossil ‘footprints’ around the ancient supercontinent Gondwana. The trilobites were a

This horse mandible from Cave 2 shows a number of cut marks on the lingual surface. They show the animal’s tongue was cut out with a stone tool. Credit: University of Montreal The timing of the first entry of humans into North America across the Bering Strait has now been set back 10,000 years. This

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